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Ubuntu directory tree

Here is the location of many folders on your system and their purpose.
See directory tree to understand how it works.

User data

Documents /home/(user)/Documents
Pictures /home/(user)/Pictures
Music /home/(user)/Music
Downloads /home/(user)/Downloads
Videos /home/(user)/Videos
Desktop /home/(user)/Desktop
Trash /home/(user)/.local/share/Trash
Softwares data /home/(user)/.local/share
Softwares preferences /home/(user)/(.software)
System preferences /home/(user)/.gconf
Fonts, /home/(utilisateur)/.fonts

System data

Executables /bin
Libraries /lib
Hardware /dev
Configuration /etc
Users /home
Drives /media
Process /proc
Superuser /root
Temporary files /tmp